skip to Main Content

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or rectum, and they are also named colon cancer or rectal cancer. They are often grouped together because they have many features in common.

Stages of Colorectal Cancer

Stage 0

The cancer is in its earliest stage. This stage is also known as carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma (Tis). It has not grown beyond the inner layer (mucosa) of the colon or rectum.

Stage 1

The cancer has grown through the muscularis mucosa into the submucosa, and it may also have grown into the muscularis propria. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage 2A

The cancer has grown into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum but has not gone through them. It has not reached nearby organs. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage 2B

The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum but has not grown into other nearby tissues or organs. It has not yet spread to nearby lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage 2C

The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum and is attached to or has grown into other nearby tissues or organs. It has not yet spread to nearby lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage 3A

The cancer has grown through the mucosa into the submucosa, and it may also have grown into the muscularis propria. It has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes but not the nodes themselves. It has not spread to distant sites.

OR

The cancer has grown through the mucosa into the submucosa. It has spread to 4 to 6 nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

Stage 3B

The cancer has grown into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum or through the visceral peritoneum but has not reached nearby organs. It has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes but not the nodes themselves. It has not spread to distant sites.

OR

The cancer has grown into the muscularis propria or into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum. It has spread to 4 to 6 nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

OR

The cancer has grown through the mucosa into the submucosa, and it may also have grown into the muscularis propria. It has spread to 7 or more nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

Stage 3C

The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum (including the visceral peritoneum) but has not reached nearby organs. It has spread to 4 to 6 nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

OR

The cancer has grown into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum or through the visceral peritoneum but has not reached nearby organs. It has spread to 7 or more nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

OR

The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum and is attached to or has grown into other nearby tissues or organs. It has spread to at least one nearby lymph node or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

Stage 4A

The cancer may or may not have grown through the wall of the colon or rectum. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes. It has spread to 1 distant organ (such as the liver or lung) or distant set of lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity).

Stage 4B

The cancer might or might not have grown through the wall of the colon or rectum. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes. It has spread to more than 1 distant organ (such as the liver or lung) or distant set of lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity).

Stage 4C

The cancer might or might not have grown through the wall of the colon or rectum. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes. It has spread to distant parts of the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), and may or may not have spread to distant organs or lymph nodes.
Back To Top