skip to Main Content

Gynaecological Cancers

Gynaecological cancers start in a woman’s in a woman’s reproductive system and include:

  • Cervical cancer starts in the neck of the womb (the cervix).
  • Ovarian cancer is cancer of the ovary.
  • Womb cancer, also called uterine or endometrial cancer.
  • Vaginal cancer starts in the vagina.
  • Vulval cancer can start in any part of the female external sex organs (the vulva).

Stages of Gynaecological Cancers

Cervical Cancer

The cancer is only in the neck of the womb (cervix).

The cancer has spread outside the cervix, into the surrounding tissues.

The cancer has spread from the cervix into the structures around it.

The cancer has spread to the bladder or back passage (rectum) or further away.

Ovarian Cancer

The cancer is only in the ovaries.

The cancer has grown outside the ovary or ovaries, and is growing within the area circled by your hip bones (the pelvis). There may also be cancer cells in the abdomen.

The cancer has spread outside the pelvis into the abdominal cavity. Your cancer is also stage 3 if cancer is found in the lymph nodes in your upper abdomen, groin or behind the womb.

The cancer has spread to other body organs some distance away from the ovaries, such as the liver or lungs.

Womb Cancer

Stage 1 cancers are early cancers and the easiest to treat. The cancer is within the womb.

This means the cancer has grown into the cervix.

This stage means the cancer has spread outside the womb, but is still within the pelvis. Your doctor may call this locally advanced womb cancer.

Stage 4 means the cancer has spread to another area of the body.

Vaginal Cancer

The cancer has started to grow into the wall of the vagina but has not spread further.

The cancer has begun to spread outside the vagina into the surrounding tissues. But it has not reached the walls of the pelvis.

The cancer has spread outside the vagina and reached the side walls of the pelvis. There may also be cancer cells in lymph nodes close to the vagina.

This stage is advanced vaginal cancer. The cancer has spread to other body organs outside the vagina.

Vulval Cancer

Stage 1 vulval cancer means it is only present in the vulva.

Stage 2 vulval cancer means the cancer has spread to nearby tissue.

In stage 3, the cancer can be any size. It has spread into nearby lymph nodes. It may have spread into the lower part of the urethra, the lower part of the vagina, or the anus.

Stage 4 vulval cancer is advanced cancer.

Back To Top